Africa Update
Tuesday, 3. February 1999

FREE of charge news and background service from the Norwegian Council for Africa. The Norwegian Council for Africa (Fellesr├ądet for Afrika) is a non-profit making NGO. The news items and background stories are for reading and information only, and strictly not for publication, broadcast or other forms of redistribution. Some of the articles included in AFRICA UPDATE are shortened.


CONTENTS:

1. South Africa: South Africa's dogs of war move to E Europe

2. South Africa: Government pulls IEC out of financial fix

3. South Africa: Fall Guy Ignored Tradition

4. South Africa: MEC's empty promises

5. South Africa: Kriegler's departure a blow to free elections

6. Ghana: Rawlings urges collective responsibility for peace

7. Africa: Experts deplore dumping waster steel in Africa

8. Eritrea: OAU replies to queries on peace proposals

9. DR Congo: Rifts within the rebel movement widening

10. Southern Africa: SADC urged to cooperate in education


********************NEWS and BACKGROUND********************


1. South Africa: South Africa's dogs of war move to E Europe

The Sowetan (South Africa), 3 February 1999

By Jimmy Seepe

Johannesburg - Former South African mercenaries have relocated to Eastern
European countries from where they allegedly continue to supply Angolan
rebels with ammunition.

Intelligence sources this week told Sowetan that the mercenaries, whose
activities were declared illegal by the Government's anti-mercenary
legislation, have found a new platform from which to conduct their business.

The mercenaries are alleged to be supplying the Unita rebel movement through
Zambia with the possible tacit approval of certain corrupt Zambian citizens
who have a vested interest in the Unita cause.

Concern about the mercenaries was also raised at the weekend by the West
African Peacekeeping force, ECOMOG.

ECOMOG commander Major-General Timothy Shelpidi alleged that the mercenaries
were involved in the war in Sierra Leone together with mercenaries from
Israel, Burkina Faso and Eastern European countries such as Ukraine.

It is also alleged that several former pilots of the South African National
Defence Force who left the service and are familiar with Angola are flying
some of the aircraft that are supplying Unita with artillery.

Early last month, intervention by the Southern African Development Community
averted a full-blown war between Angola and Zambia after the latter was
accused of having a hand in the supply of weapons to the rebel movement.

Zambia has been repeatedly accused by Angola of supplying arms to Unita.

It appears that there is little that the South African Government can do at
this stage since most of the activities of the SA mercenaries are not being
conducted from the country.

Concern has been expressed in intelligence circles about the security at
some SA airports and whether mercenaries were making use of these facilities
to conduct illegal activities.

Intelligence sources told Sowetan that security at three airports - Lanseria
and Grand Central, both in Gauteng, and Gateway in Pietersburg - has been of
major concern to them.
One of the problems highlighted at Lanseria airport concerns the absence of
customs officials at night.It is alleged that customs officials work until
10pm. The airport is left unattended thereafter.

South African Secret Service director-general Billy Masetla said the
Government had succeeded in clamping down on mercenary activity in the
country since it introduced the anti-mercenary law last year.

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2. South Africa: Government pulls IEC out of financial fix

The Sowetan (South Africa) 3 February 1999

By Pamela Dube

Johannesburg - The Independent Electoral Commission is to receive a
financial injection which will bring its budget to R718 million and ensure
the smooth running of the general election in a few months' time.

IEC chief executive officer Professor Mandla Mchunu announced yesterday that
negotiations with the government over the commission's budget were now over.

"I have verbal confirmation (from the Government) that it (the budget) has
been approved," Mchunu said.

The IEC chief also announced that apart from the special registration dates
of February 18 to 28, there would be one last weekend to complete the
process. The last registration weekend would be March 5 to 7.

So far, only 12,8 million (49 percent) of the country's 26 million eligible
voters have registered to vote.

The IEC had initially asked for R960 million to run this year's elections
but only R550 million was forwarded to the commission.

Outgoing IEC chairman Judge Johann Kriegler had for the past few months
accused the Government of not providing enough financial support for the
commission to effectively oversee the country's second democratic elections.

However, Mchunu said the shortfall of R242 million in the election budget
would be catered for as a contingency measure. The agreement with the
Government was that where the commission was short the "difference will be
readily available. These funds will be available for contingencies".

One of the contingencies to be settled before the elections was the
employment of permanent election officers.

While generally pleased with the work of the volunteers during the
registration process, Mchunu said: "I need core staff to run the elections.

I need electoral staffing with a high degree of reliability." He added that
there were contingency funds to hire staff "but all we need is proper
discussions".

Compounding the need for electoral staff was that the military, which had
been assisting with the registration process, would be relieved of this
responsibility to concentrate on security provision during the elections.

The 10-day special registration period this month was intended for civil
servants and military personnel who had volunteered their services during
the first two rounds. Also catered for will be the disabled - who will be
registered at their place of residence.

Mchunu said he hoped the voters' roll would be published by April to allow
the IEC staff to start putting structures in place for the elections.

While President Nelson Mandela is expected to announce the election date
soon, Mchunu said the IEC would recommend that the date be made a public
holiday to allow every eligible voter a chance to vote. And it would have to
be mid-week, he added.

"Knowing South Africans, if you make Friday an election day and a public
holiday, they will treat it as long weekend," he said.

*****************************

3. South Africa: Fall Guy Ignored Tradition

The Sowetan (South Africa) 3 February 1999

By Malcolm Ray

Johannesburg - The ousting of the Inkatha Freedom Party's KwaZulu-Natal
premier Dr Ben Ngubane is politically conspicuous and fraught with foul
play. His departure comes in the crucible of election politics and follows a
host of leadership purges since 1994.

The pattern is peculiar. In 1995 the then general secretary, Dr Ziba Jiyane,
was kicked out of his post. This was soon followed by the unceremonious
removal of former premier Dr Frank Mdlalose in 1997 and Correctional
Services Minister Sipo Mzimela in 1998 from their respective portfolios.

Officially, the IFP insists the latest removal of Ngubane, less than two
years after his predecessor, was a consequence of dismal matric results in
the province - a responsibility of provincial education MEC Vincent Zulu.

Another reason cited for his removal is his opposition to casino deals in
the province by members of his party.

Two questions arise: is the performance of a provincial MEC grounds to get
rid of a premier? And why was Ngubane's alleged opposition to crony
capitalism in the province and principled support of legitimate tenders for
casino deals seen as subversive? Both reasons obscure a more veritable
reality. Politically, the picture is of a party in profound disarray.

Leadership tussles and infighting over the last three years typify a
rudderless movement. Less tangible but more enduring is a dilemma: the IFP
must shed its legacy of patronage politics and modernise without losing its
traditional and predominantly rural support base.

At stake is a crisis of role and identity facing the party. Whereas its
meteoric rise during the 1980s under the canopy of Zulu nationalism
harmonised with a predominantly rural constituency and traditional
leadership, a complex set of social and economic dynamics introduced new
difficulties in the mid-1990s.

Economic growth, job creation and rural development in the province are
pressing priorities which the party has not adequately addressed.

It is estimated that the unemployment rate in the province is roughly 40
percent. Very little headway has been made to attract investment. And the
provincial government has not kept pace with a rapid urbanisation process
which has seen a proliferation of peri-urban squalor.

It is not unreasonable to argue that the patronage of the IFP's rural
constituency will increasingly be driven less by nationalism than a desire
for socio-economic delivery.
In the public eye, provincial government is responsible for this state of
affairs.

Thus the IFP's sheer relevance as a political force in the province means
abandoning its traditional brand of politics in favour of delivering
development, a process that in turn requires shifting its objectives towards
participation in policy-making and implementation. In short, the party
either modernises or risks losing support.

It is in this context that Ngubane's fate was sealed. Sources in the IFP say
he is well aware of the tasks at hand. Described as a "moderate technocrat
and progressive", he is rumoured to have been a driving force for growth and
development in the province.

His diplomacy in the last year found favour with opposition parties. And
business threw its weight behind his commitment to urban growth and
industrial development.

His approach to inner-party democracy and open debate was at odds with the
"autocratic and loyalist style of traditional leadership" that has been a
hallmark of the IFP, according to one source. Others involved in the
provincial peace initiatives point to his "independent stand" in the party.

"He has taken a more reconciliatory position than other leaders, pushing for
less concessions for the IFP in order to speed up the implementation of the
accords," said one.

Some political commentators point to the rise of a "modernising wing" in the
party - including Ngubane, Mdlalose, Jiyane and Musa Myeni - after 1994.

They emphasise the need to meet basic needs, a position that confirms rather
than resolves the party's dilemma.
Schooled in a culture of authoritarianism and prescriptive loyalty, the IFP
leadership now has to engage with a constituency dependent on delivery.

In virtually all his interventions, Ngubane is believed to have pushed the
boundaries of dissent in the upper echelons of the leadership. Analyst David
Hemson comments: "Placing innovative policy frameworks and development above
patronage politically pushed to the fore urbane technocrats capable of
delivering services.

"They saw the need for new skills, attitudes and forms of interaction with
the party's constituency and the state." However, their potential influence
on the party leadership was seen as a threat to Zulu tradition and the
identity of the party.

As Hemson succinctly explains: "The rationale for the IFP's existence is the
patronage of Zulu people of its nationalist tradition. For the traditional
leadership, the technocrats therefore represent a very real threat."

More general is the danger that threatened to submerge the identity of the
party under a grand reconstruction effort led by the African National Congress.

The irony is that the purely technical solutions favoured by Ngubane and
others would inevitably depoliticise the identity of the party and dilute
its specifically provincial and ethnic profile.

Political identity Opposition by IFP leader Mangosothu Buthelezi was
glaringly evident last year when Mzimela mooted a merger with the ANC. It
was a move which cost Mzimela dearly.

Hemson explains that support of a merger would necessarily have entailed the
adoption of a "singularised political identity which the traditional
leadership feared." It comes as no surprise that Ngubane's replacement by
former Arts, Culture, Science and Technology Minister Lionel Mtshali was swift.

Mtshali is considered to be a strong traditionalist and unwavering supporter
of Buthelezi. No doubt, his appointment is deliberate.

In the run-up to the elections, he is likely to insert an election programme
with which the IFP succeeded historically in mobilising a potent social and
political movement around ethnic chauvinism.

It is into this political blind spot that the IFP will march this time
round.However, sooner or later the absence of a popular tendency in its
ranks capable of modernising the party will guarantee more purges, tensions
and splits.

****************************

4. South Africa: MEC's empty promises

The Sowetan (South Africa) 3 February 1999

By Mbongeni Hlophe

Johannesburg - Promises by fired KwaZulu-Natal MEC for education Dr Vincent
Zulu to supply stationery and textbooks to all provincial public schools
have proved to be empty after his department's failure to meet last month's
deadline to deliver textbooks to about 500 schools.

The department had earlier promised to provide free stationery to all grades
and also to provide textbooks to grades 1, 2 and 12 in public schools.

At present more than 90 percent of KwaZulu-Natal schools are operating
without textbooks or stationery. Meanwhile, Khathu Mamaila reports that a
similar problem is being experienced in Northern Province, where there is a
critical shortage of stationery and textbooks.

Several principals, who spoke on condition of anonymity, told Sowetan in a
snap survey yesterday that textbooks had not yet been delivered to most schools.

Education spokesman Mr. Rapule Matsane denied that textbooks were in short
supply. In KwaZulu-Natal it emerged yesterday that textbooks were only
supplied to schools in Umlazi township that were visited by Zulu last month.

However, at Ngwemabala High School in Port Shepstone on the KwaZulu-Natal
South Coast parents bought stationery themselves last year in preparation
for the anticipated dry season.

"We have received neither textbooks nor stationery for this year and there
is no hope that there will be any supply of stationery," said Ngwemabala
High School principal Mr. Sibusiso Shezi. At Ulundi's Masibumbane High
School the department failed to supply stationery and text- books. This is
not the first time the department has failed to keep its promises.

Last year not a single textbook was delivered despite promises by both the
national and provincial education departments that stationery and books
would be delivered on time.

Zulu's promises were criticised by teachers' unions, who questioned the
logic behind the supply of textbooks for grades 1, 2 and 12 pupils.
Teachers' unions could not understand why textbooks were supplied to only a
limited number of grades.

"Our education system has 12 grades and if textbooks are provided to only
three grades, what will happen to the other grades," said South African
Democratic Teachers Union provincial secretary Mr. Ndaba Gcwabaza. "We have
never been convinced that the department could fulfil its promises."

************************

5. South Africa: Kriegler's departure a blow to free elections

Inter-Press Service (IPS), 27 January 1999

By Gumisai Mutume

Johannesburg - The road to an autonomous, free and fair election in South
Africa has been dealt another blow following the resignation of the
country's Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) chairman Johann Kriegler.

Kriegler, who announced his resignation Tuesday, said he had had enough.
Unconfirmed reports say he was angered by the fall- out he had with
government over the funding and control of the IEC and the issue of
bar-coded identity documents (I.D.s.).

Since last year Kriegler has disagreed with government over his failure to
get the full 150 million U.S. dollars budgeted for by the IEC for this
year's elections.

Kriegler also has taken the side of opposition parties over the requirement
that voters need bar-coded identity documents in order to vote.

The new I.D.s were introduced a few years ago and their bar- codes and other
safety measures are regarded by government as the safest form of
identification.

''The resignation of Kriegler casts doubts on the independence, autonomy and
capability of the IEC to run free and fair elections,'' says Frederick Van
Zyl Slabbert co-founder of the Institute for a Democratic Alternative in
South Africa (IDASA).

''I don't buy the story that everything is nice and rosy otherwise the judge
would not have resigned,'' says Slabbert.

President Nelson Mandela was at pains to explain that all is well in the IEC
and although Kriegler had disagreed with government over some issues these
were not the reasons behind the resignation.

Already there are two court cases that have been lodged against the IEC. One
was lodged by the opposition Democratic Party (DP) which says the bar-coded
I.D. requirement is unconstitutional and will take away the right to vote
from many South Africans.

The New National Party (New NP) also has sought a high court order against
the IEC charging that because of the under-funding of the IEC the elections
would not be free and fair.

''This is a serious blow to the electoral process,'' says New NP leader
Marthinus van Schalkwyk in a statement. ''The serious setback can however
still be overcome...''

Some of the remedies would be a commitment by government to ensure the
integrity of the process, through which a new chairman of the IEC is to be
appointed, and the removal of the uncertainty of an election date.

The date of the elections have not been announced and according to South
Africa's constitution, will only be known following the end of the current
parliament's term in April.

Kriegler's resignation has equally worried other opposition parties warning
that government should not be seen to be blocking the work of the IEC.

Kriegler was one of those behind the salvaging of the 1994 election which
was threatening to degenerate into chaos. Commentators say the 1999 election
will not be better without his experience.

Kriegler has, however, downplayed his significance saying the institution
will be able to fulfill its mandate.

''If our country has reached the stage where the credibility of an
institution like the IEC depends on one aged Afrikaner then we are really in
trouble,'' Kriegler told journalists.

It is also alleged that Kriegler was not happy with the arrangement that the
commission report to the Department of Home Affairs instead of parliament.

The IEC is a constitutional body tasked with the running of the country's
elections. It must take steps to prevent violence and intimidation and can
reject the results of an election.

''Government re-iterates its commitment to the independence of the IEC,''
says Mandela. ''The relationship between our government and the IEC is in
accordance with the best practice in the democratic world.''

The resignation comes a few days before the next phase of voter registration
to compile the country's first voter's roll. The exercise involves more than
70,000 electoral officials in more than 14,000 registration centres.

The IEC intends to register as many of the eligible 25 million voters as
possible but has so far only been able to attract about 10 million.

The commission initially intended to conduct voter registration over two
eight-day periods and then cut it back to only three days in November due to
financial constraints.

Following a presidential decree, the IEC has had to stagger the process over
several weeks in order to round up as many voters as possible.

So far 15 political parties have registered with the IEC. They include such
little known groups as the Dabalorivhuwa Patriotic Front, Keep It Straight
and Simple (KISS), the God's Peoples Party (GPP), New Earth Party and the
well-known Inkatha Freedom Party and ruling African National Congress (ANC).
More are still expected to register.

****************************

6. Ghana: Rawlings urges collective responsibility for peace

Panafrican News Agency, 2 February 1999

Accra - Ghanaian President Jerry Rawlings Tuesday appealed to South African
President Nelson Mandela to bring his influence to bear on fostering
collective responsibility towards peace and stability on the continent,
especially in the West Africa sub-region.

He said although Southern Africa also has its own problems, there is need to
tap the experience and goodwill of some leaders, like Mandela, to restore peace.

''There is no doubt that President Mandela is a great asset to the
continent,'' Rawlings told the outgoing South African High Commissioner,
Timothy Maseko. ''I do not think we should limit our problems to our
individual selves. We must double out efforts, reach out, and get directly
involved in containing the conflicts.''

Maseko has been recalled after barely three months tour of duty.

Rawlings said the time had come for African leaders to look back and ask
themselves what efforts they could do to contain the increasing violence
that had plagued the continent to enable it to reach out positively to the
world.

He cited disturbances in Africa, especially in the West Africa sub- region,
and urged Ghana and South Africa to collaborate to bring their influences to
bear on the parties involved.

These disturbances and the violence, he said, are retarding progress in the
sub-region, adding that without stability, Africa would suffer.

Rawlings said efforts at solving the crises have suffered a setback due to
mistrust between some countries.

He, however, expressed the hope that the involvement of South Africa and
other countries would bring about a positive change.

Joseph Laryea, deputy foreign minister, said relations between the two
countries occupies a special place in Ghana's foreign policy.

He commented on reports that Ghanaians constitute the second largest
immigrants in South Africa and that most of them are claiming refugee status
because of alleged unfavourable conditions at home.

He tasked the out-going envoy to use his objective assessment of the
situation in Ghana to correct this misperception which might tarnish the
image of the country if not checked.

Laryea also charged the relevant agencies, such as the immigration
authorities in South Africa, to critically screen those immigrants claiming
to be Ghanaians to ascertain their true nationality, saying most people take
advantage of the good image of Ghana abroad for their selfish gains.

**************************

7. Africa: Experts deplore dumping waster steel in Africa

Panafrican News Agency, 2 February 1999

Accra - African steel and iron experts on Tuesday, deplored the dumping of
finished steel products and iron waste from Eastern Europe and Asia into Africa.

Tim Efobi, President of the African Steel and Iron Associations (AISA),
noted that despite efforts by AISA to address the steel dumping problems
since its last board meeting in Zimbabwe, ''the practice still prevails and
is on a higher scale in many African countries''.

He therefore urged African governments to take measures to stop it. Efobi
was speaking at the opening of the Sixth Board Meeting of the Association in
Accra.

The four-day forum being attended by over 30 experts in the African steel
industry would take stock of the performance of the industry in the last
year and plan for the next millennium.

It is also to speed up efforts to address problems facing the industry on
the African continent. Efobi said at the request of AISA, the Organisation
of the African Unity (OAU) has invited the Secretariat of AISA to address
the Ministers of Industries of AISA member countries during their summit
slated for April/May this year in Libreville, Gabon.

He said Nigeria has set up an Anti-Dumping Committee to seriously address
the dumping problems facing that country and urged other African countries
to follow the Nigerian example.

Efobi urged African leaders to wake up to the challenges of the new
millennium and support their steel and iron sectors which, he said, have the
potential to bridge the development gap between Africa and the West.

Thomas Agawu, Managing Director of Wahome Steel Company Limited, noted that
steel and iron waste were also being dumped into Africa, thus creating
environmental problems.

He suggested that African governments and AISA must make a collaborative
effort to arrest the problem.

Agawu urged African governments to refuse any compensation from countries
that dump the waste, saying ''the damage usually caused is far higher than
compensation.''

John Frank Abu, the Ghana Minister of Trade and Industry, assured the
delegates that the issue would be vigorously addressed during this year's
OAU Ministers of Trade and Industry conference.

Abu noted that technologies are now available for a cleaner production
practice and urged AISA member countries to ''avail yourselves of
international practice to ensure a sustainable iron and steel industry with
sound environmental practices.''

The minister observed that though iron ore deposit in Africa accounts for
over 20 percent of the world total, ''the continent accounts for only about
two percent of the world's iron and steel production.''

Abu blamed the poor performance of the steel and iron industry on inadequate
capital, lack of requisite skills, obsolete machinery, absence of
competitive technology, poor quality control, and lack of information and
supportive research and development in the industry.

He suggested that AISA should explore areas of resources and establish
African sub-regional and regional iron and steel projects with competitive
technologies and appropriate strategies to save the industry and enhance the
economies of African states.

***********************

8. Eritrea: OAU replies to queries on peace proposals

Panafrican News Agency, 2 February 1999

By Ghion Hagos

Addis Ababa - The OAU said Tuesday it was awaiting response from Eritrea to
the reply the organization had made to a set of questions Asmara raised on
proposals for resolving the Ethio-Eritrean border dispute.

''The OAU replied on 26 January to 29 questions Eritrea submitted to the OAU
on the framework agreement on resolving the border dispute,'' OAU spokesman
Ibrahim Dagash told reporters.

At his first monthly press briefing, he said the OAU was ''seriously
concerned'' about the risk of armed conflict over the dispute.

''We are fully coordinating our efforts with the United Nations,'' Dagash
stated, mentioning the current mission to Asmara of the UN secretary
general's special envoy, Mohamed Sahnoun, who is also expected in Addis
Ababa Thursday.

The two countries fought a brief war in 1998 over the border dispute.

In its efforts to defuse the crisis, the OAU has proposed a framework
agreement, which calls on Eritrea to withdraw its troops from the disputed
Badme area to positions prior to 6 May.

Eritrea rejects the proposal, although it insists on resolving the conflict
through peaceful means.

In an interview with Eritrea Television Sunday night, President Isaias
Afwerki reaffirmed that ''Eritrea will never fire the first bullet.''

He reiterated that his country ''remains engaged in the OAU peace process
and will stick to a peaceful settlement of the dispute until the last second.''

''The OAU Framework Agreement is not a take it or leave it package but an
open-ended peace proposal subject to discussion and clarifications,'' he noted.

''Eritrea, as indeed is also the case with Ethiopia, has a legitimate right
to seek clarifications and to ask for amendments as long as these are valid
and substantive.''

He said his administration has a responsibility to bring about a fair and
viable resolution of the border dispute so that ''future generations may not
shoulder an inherited burden.''

It was ''vital that ambiguities and contradictory elements be thrashed out
so as to lead to an enduring agreement that will not be throttled in
mid-stream,'' he stressed.

**************************

9. DR Congo: Rifts within the rebel movement widening

Inter-Press Service (IPS), 1 February 1999

By Chris Simpson

Kigali - Rifts within the Congolese Rally for Democracy (RCD) appear to be
widening as the rebel movement looks for a new military advantage in the
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

The RCD confirmed on Sunday that its forces had taken the town of Lubao in
the southern region of Kasai Orientale. Rebel Security Chief Bizima Karaha
said the RCD was pushing south- west, taking the towns of Samba and Kabao
before moving on Lubao itself.

Karaha said troops from Laurent Kabila's Congolese Armed Forces (FAC) had
declined to fight, but the RCD had encountered strong resistance from
Katangese extremists and Rwandan Interahamwe militia fighters.

Lubao lies 24O kilometres east of the main diamond town of Mbuji-Mayi,
capital of Kasai Orientale. The RCD has long identified Mbuji-Mayi as a key
target, but Kabila's heavy deployment of Angolan and Zimbabwean troops in
both western and eastern Kasai appears to have deterred any serious rebel
push so far.

But there have been reports of a major build-up of RCD, Rwandan and Ugandan
troops east of Mbuji-Mayi in recent weeks.

Unconfirmed reports last week said Mbuji-Mayi had already been infiltrated
by rebels, with Zimbawean troops incapable of keeping them out. The RCD made
similar claims back in October, but the authorities in the DRC capital of
Kinshasa have maintained there is no security alert.

Despite continuing air raids on rebel-held towns like Nyunsu and Moba, the
RCD denies it is under any military pressure. ''Kabila's counter-offensive
has completely collapsed'', Karaha argued. ''The raids are going on simply
because he only has the capability to hit civilian targets. He just wants to
kill people''.

Karaha ruled out any immediate ceasefire. ''It's clear Kabila doesn't want
any negotiations, so we have to fight'', he said.

But while the RCD is talking confidently of making new gains, the movement's
internal divisions have not been healed. Former RCD vice-president Arthur
Zahidi N'Goma, still remains firmly at odds with the rest of the rebel
leadership, declining to take up his new position as deputy chairman of the
RCD's expanded assembly.

Despite hints of a rapprochement with RCD President Ernest Wamba-dia-Wamba
in the Ugandan capital of Kampala, Zahidi N'Goma has reiterated his
objections to the direction the RCD has taken, arguing that he and not his
colleagues still embodies what the rebellion should be about. ''I'm still
waiting'', he told IPS. ''The other leaders have put themselves outside the
movement and it is up to them to come back inside''.

Karaha said it was up to Zahidi N'Goma to decide for himself whether he was
part of the RCD or not.

Karaha declined to comment on Ugandan press reports that the RCD's Head of
Planning, Deogratias Bugera, had broken with the leadership and was looking
to work with the RCD 'Reform Movement' set up by Willy Misheki.

*******************************

10. Southern Africa: SADC urged to cooperate in education

The Post (Zambia) 2 February 1999

By Kelvin Shimo

Lusaka - There is need for the Southern African Development Community (SADC)
countries to work together if they are to cope with education needs in the
next millennium, said education minister Godfrey Miyanda yesterday.

In a speech read on his behalf by education permanent secretary Sichalwe
Kasanda at a protocol on education training workshop in Lusaka, Miyanda said
the region should share the limited expertise, resources and knowledge for
the benefit of everyone.

He noted that there are common problems in the region which could be tackled
as a united force.

"A close look at the problems of access, quality, capacity building,
infrastructure development and equity show that there is much more that is
common among us than that which is country specific," he said.


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